There are several ways in which plant extraction can be employed, in various traditional protocols water
is mostly used as an extractant currently in modern methods of extraction organic solvents with varying
polarities are used to achieve the various solubility’s of plant constituents.
This is the simplest and the most used method of plant extraction. The most simplest maceration is done
in a room temperature by mixing solvent with the ground drugs ta the ratio of 1:10 1:5 solvent to drugs
and then leaving the setup for several days with occasional stirring later after the days the extract is
repeated from plant particles by straining then and the entire process is repeated once or twice using fresh
solvent. Lastly the final residue is of extract is pressed out of the plant particles by pressing it
mechanically or by or a centrifuge. Kinetic maceration different from the simple one by continuous
stirring. This method of extraction is suitable for both initial and bulk plant extraction; the main
disadvantage of this process is it takes a lot of time from hours to weeks.
Percolation is a method of plant extraction where the powdered plant extract is dipped initially in a
solvent in a percolator after which the additional solvent is poured on top of the plant materials and left to
percolate slowly drop by drop out of the bottom of the percolator in this process there are no additional
filtration required to filter at the outlet of the percolator. However Percolation is adequate for large-scale
This process has got one main disadvantage and this is:It uses a fine powder like resins and plants which
swells exclusively and can quickly clog the percolator if the setup is left firm without the two materials in
the container being disturbed homogenously, the solvent may not reach all areas and the whole process
will be incomplete.